In 1987, California Microwave Inc. (CMI), a reconnaissance systems company now located near Baltimore, Maryland, requested a scaled-up, optionally piloted Long-EZ to test airborne sensors and cameras. After accepting the CM-44, CMI had the aircraft wing and canard redesigned. The aircraft did not enter production, but the U.S. Army and Navy contracted for its use as a flying testbed for surveillance equipment.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) approached Rutan in 1987 for a 62 percent scale model to test a design with extreme short-takeoff-and-landing capability to fly special operations forces into and out of tight spots. Rutan designed a tandem-wing, twin-turboprop aircraft with a T-tail. The Advanced Technology Tactical Transport model was able to take off in 680 feet; the agency calculated that the full-scale aircraft would take off in 1,000 feet.
Winner of the 1988 CAFE 400, an efficiency race determining which aircraft gets the highest speed consuming the least fuel, the Catbird had been briefly considered by Beech Aircraft CEO Jim Walsh as a production follow-on to the Bonanza. When that didn’t come to be, Rutan flew the five-place, single-engine airplane as his own, and parked it in 1996. This year a Scaled Composites engineer led a restoration of it and flew the airplane to EAA’s Oshkosh fly-in as part of the association’s tribute to Rutan.
A Rutan business jet, the eight-passenger, twin-turbofan Triumph was tested to 41,000 feet and 0.69 Mach in 1988, when Scaled Composites was still owned by Raytheon’s Beech Aircraft division. When the companies divorced, Scaled got custody of the Triumph, but never put it into production. The Triumph test program marked the first flight of the Williams FJ44 engine.
21. ATTT Bronco Tail
According to a 1998 DARPA report, flight tests of the cruciform-tail Advanced Technology Tactical Transport showed problems with stability, and with control of the airplane when one engine was out. Rutan corrected the problems by extending the engine nacelles and joining them with a high tail like that on the Air Force’s OV-10 Bronco.
In response to a 1985 Army requirement for a light attack aircraft, Scaled offered a compound wing-and-canard jet that carried a 25-mm Gatling gun on the right side of the fuselage. To keep the powerplant, a 3,000-pound-thrust turbofan, from ingesting the gun’s smoke, the intake was placed on the fuselage’s left side. The design wasn’t selected, but the airplane did perform in a Hollywood feature film: the 1991 Aces, Iron Eagle III, starring Lou Gossett Jr.
23. Lima 1
When Toyota needed a testbed for a Lexus engine that the car company planned to use on an airplane, it called Scaled Composites. For the top-secret project, Rutan integrated the engine as one powerplant on a conventional twin, possibly a Piper Aztec.
24. Pond Racer
Businessman and airplane collector Bob Pond shook up the 1991 Reno Unlimited class races by fielding this all-composite, twin-boom racer, powered by two V-6 automobile engines and fueled by methanol. Pilot Rick Brickert qualified the racer at 400 mph that year and won second place in the bronze Unlimited race the following year. In 1993, the airplane crashed during a qualifying heat, and Brickert was killed.
25. Lima 2
After flight testing a 250-hp Lexus V-8 engine on Lima 1, Rutan designed an airplane around it.
26. Raptor D-1
Designed to be a remotely piloted air vehicle under a contract with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, the long-winged, high-altitude Raptor conducted its early test fights with a pilot on board—emphasis on the word “on.” The test pilot sat outside on a saddle, straddling the airplane’s fuselage at the point where the wings intersected. The pilots could override the UAV’s control system. The high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft was flown to test the feasibility of firing a small missile that would destroy a tactical ballistic missile during the boost phase of its flight.
27. Raptor D-2
The second Raptor was large enough for its test pilot to fit inside. Beginning in 1995, it was one of several aircraft to fly in the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program.