Some say that Beech and Raytheon's turboprop failed because it tried too much, too soon.
- By Mark Huber
- Air & Space magazine, September 2004
NASM (SI Neg. #9A02243)
(Page 2 of 5)
The Starship would have pushed the technology envelope for any aerospace company, but Beech was especially conservative. Seeking to replace its highly successful but 15-year-old King Air line, Beech decided in 1979 to develop a turboprop that would help preserve its lead in the business turboprop market, in which it held a 50 percent share. The goal was an airplane that could cruise at 400 mph, carry 10 passengers, and weigh less than 12,500 pounds. (By comparison, a King Air 350 cruises at 360 mph, seats two pilots and eight passengers, and has a basic empty weight of 9,300 pounds.)
According to a personal account of the airplane’s development by former Beech chief executive Max Bleck (Starship History; www.aviatorservices.com/starship_history_1.htm), the company studied designs that ranged from the traditional to the radical, seeking an airplane that delivered jet-like performance at cheaper turboprop operating costs. Soon one design emerged, with aft-mounted pusher engines and a wing with vertical surfaces at each wingtip. It also had a large cabin, one of the King Air’s most appealing features, but its size would make it heavy. “The decision was made early on to build using composites for [their] favorable strength-to-weight ratio,” Bleck wrote.
By the late 1970s, other companies were working on similar or competing concepts, spurred in part by spiking oil prices. In Reno, Bill Lear’s widow, Moya, was trying to finish his Learfan. It had a composite fuselage with twin turboshaft engines mounted in the tail and driving a four-blade pusher propeller. Italian airframe maker Piaggio teamed with Learjet (then owned by the Gates Rubber Company) on a design that became the P.180 Avanti. The Learfan never made it to market, and Gates bailed out of the Piaggio program.
The P.180 is in production today and has finally started selling, thanks largely to Italian government subsidies and the deep pockets and patience of Piaggio’s owners, the Ferrari family (yes, that Ferrari). During the 1970s, Cessna, Mitsubishi, Piper, Swearingen, and Rockwell fielded successful conventional twin-engine turboprops.
Beech saw its domination of the business turboprop market slipping away, and on January 30, 1980, its engineering department issued a closely held report entitled “Advance Design Comparison Studies of Several Unconventional and Conventional Corporate Turboprops and Fanjets.” Months later, Raytheon, a Massachusetts-based electronics firm, acquired Beech Aircraft, and it was not until August 1982 that the program resumed. Advanced projects engineer Bill Brown remembers the day well. “Chet [vice president of engineering Chester Rembleski] gets us all together, turns off the lights, and shows us this movie. In the movie this guy is climbing up a mountain and you hear him breathing and see him slipping on the rocks and clawing with his hands. He is really struggling, but not saying anything. Then he gets to the top of the mountain, puts on his skis, and skis down the side of the mountain. He goes like hell. Then the lights come up. We’re all sitting there puzzled, looking at each other, and Chet says, ‘Gentlemen, we are going to design a new airplane and we are going to do it in two years.’ ” The project was initially labeled 300A, perhaps to suggest it was a new King Air, and later Starship 1, and then model 2000. It was shrouded in secrecy, and most Beech employees thought Brown’s team was working on the next King Air.
By the late 1960s, composites had begun to find their way into aviation, initially in sailplanes. Beech’s own research showed that carbon fiber was at least three times stronger than aircraft aluminum. In the California desert’s Antelope Valley, next to Edwards Air Force Base, a young engineer named Burt Rutan was designing aircraft with a small forward wing, or canard, that made his aircraft more aerodynamically efficient and virtually spin-proof. (When some aircraft fail to maintain sufficient airspeed to produce lift, they have a tendency to stall and enter a spin.) His first design, the VariViggen, used wood. Then he started looking at fiberglass.
Bill Brown was a homebuilt-aircraft enthusiast who had already worked with composites—in his garage. He began making sketches of what a Rutan design would look like if it were morphed into a business aircraft. Beech then approached Rutan about joining the design effort. The company’s designers explored numerous configurations, including pushers, twins, and one like the Learfan, before finally selecting one Rutan had drawn on a napkin. According to both Rutan and Brown, it was not until Raytheon entered the picture that the project, originally conceived by Beech in 1979, really took off.
The aircraft’s systems would be as radical as its shape. The Starship would break all the rules: It was the first business aircraft with an all-glass digital cockpit—a group of 14 cathode-ray tubes in the instrument panel. Rockwell-Collins was tasked with developing this system, called EFIS, for electronic flight information system. The Starship was the first civilian aircraft with a pressurized carbon-fiber fuselage to be certificated by the Federal Aviation Administration, the first modern U.S.-built production civil aircraft with a forward wing or canard, the first without a tail, and one of the first passenger turboprops with pusher propellers (Piaggio was the other).