One-and-Onlies: The Complete List

All the Smithsonian’s one-of-a-kind aircraft

A Wiseman-Cooke biplane hanging in the National Postal Museum, one of the Smithsonian's one-of-a-kinds. (Eric Long/NASM)

As National Air and Space Museum aeronautics curator Jeremy Kinney noted in our September 2012 issue, the NASM collection includes nearly 150 unique aircraft, many of them “not so well known.”

Indeed. Who knew there were four incarnations of the Langley Aerodrome? Ever hear of a Maupin-Lanteri Black Diamond? Martin Tadpole? Nagler Rolz NR 54 V2?

This list, with links to the museum’s aircraft database, classifies all of NASM’s unique aircraft by type and era:

Early Flight
Commercial and Civilian
General Aviation
Gliders and Sport Aviation
Lighter-Than-Air Gondolas
Military Aircraft by Nation
Special Purpose, Research, and Racing
Vertical Flight.

“One of a kind” means the only one ever built. “Sole survivor” means the only example of the type remaining. “One of two survivors” means one of the two examples of the type remaining.


Baldwin Red Devil (sole survivor)

Benoist-Korn Type XII (sole survivor)

Curtiss Flying Boat hull (sole survivor)

Curtiss Model D Headless Pusher (sole survivor)

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